Kissinger warned Zulfikar Ali Bhutto that if Pakistan continued with its nuclear programme "the Prime Minister would have
to pay a heavy price." - August, 1976
In his book "If I am Assassinated" written from the Death Cell, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto revealed how Kissinger had said "We will
make an example of you".
\ PERSONAL DETAILS
Name: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Date of Birth: January 5, 1928
Father's Name: Sir Shahnawaz Khan Bhutto Place of Birth: Larkana District
Mother's Name: Lady Khursheed Begum Mother Tongue: Sindhi
Married at Karachi to Ms Nusrat Ispahani September 8, 1951.
Benazir Bhutto - 1953
Murtaza Bhutto - 1954 - 1996
Sanam Bhutto - 1957
Shahnawaz Bhutto - 1958 - 1985
Cathedral School, Bombay - 1937 - 1947
Joined University of Southern California - 1947
Transferred to Berkely Campus of USC - 1949
First Asian to be elected to Berkely Student Council
Graduated with Honours in Political Science - 1950
Admitted to Christ Church College, Oxford - 1950
Graduated with Honours from Oxford University - 1952
Called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn - 1953
Lecturer of Sindh Muslim Law College - 1954
Member of Pakistan Delegation to the United Nations - 1957
Addressed the United Nations Sixth Committee on Aggression - October 25, 1957
Leader of Pakistan Delegation to United Nations Conference on the Law of the Seas, addressed the Conference on the Freedom
of the Seas.- March - 1958
Minister of Commerce - 1958
Minister for Information and National Reconstruction - 1959
Minister for Fuel, Power and Natural Resources - 1960
Leader of Pakistan Delegation to the UN - 1959, 1960, 1963 & 1965
Statement in support of Algeria against French Imperialism at UN - 1959
Leader of Pakistan Delegation to Moscow to negotiate agreement on Oil and Gas Exploration with Soviet Union with 120
Million Roubles credit - 1960
Led Pakistan's Delegation to UN and differed with US by not voting against China's Membership - 1960
Foreign Minister of Pakistan - 1963 - 1965
Sino-Pakistan Boundary Agreement, gaining 750 Square Miles for Pakistan 2nd March - 1963
Famous Speech at the U.N. Security Council "We will wage a war for a thousand years" - 22-23 September 1965
Resigned from the Federal Cabinet - June, 1966
PAKISTAN PEOPLES PARTY (PPP)
Historic welcome in Lahore after resignation as Foreign Minister - 21st June, 1966
Manifesto of Pakistan Peoples Party prepared
"Islam is our Faith, Democracy is our Policy, Socialism is our Economy, All Power to the People". October,
Foundation of Pakistan Peoples Party, Lahore - 30th November, 1967
Led Mass Movement for Restoration of Democracy - 1968
Arrested for creating disaffection against Government - November 12, 1968
Landslide victory for PPP in 1970 elections in present day Pakistan - December 7, 1970
Economic Reforms Order Nationalisation of Key Industries - January 3, 1972
Announcement of Labour Policies - February 10, 1972
Workers would participate in Profits
Old Age Pensions and Group Insurance
Land Reforms - 1st March, 1973
Ceiling reduced from 500 Acres to 150 Acres of irrigated land and 1000 Acres to 300 Acres for semi-irrigated land. All
lands in excess of 100 Acres allocated to Govt. Servants confiscated and redistributed.
The Law Reform Ordinance - giving effect to the recommendations of the Law Reforms Commission. - 14th April, 1972
Martial Law Lifted 21st April, 1972
Simla Agreement Signed
Pakistan to get back 5000 square miles of territory occupied in 1971 war. India and Pakistan to respect line of control
in Kashmir without prejudice to Pakistan's claim. - 2nd July, 1972
National Book Foundation established - 24th September, 1972
Inaugurated Pakistan's first Nuclear Power Plant at Karachi. - 28th November, 1972
Establishment of NDFC - 5th February, 1973
Establishment of Quaid-E-Azam University - 9th February, 1973
Constitution of Pakistan passed unanimously - 12th April, 1973
Establishment of Port Qasim Authority - 27th June, 1973
Elected Prime Minister of Pakistan - 14th August, 1973
Identity Cards for Citizens - 28th July, 1973
Agreement for repatriation of 93,000 POWs - 28th August, 1973
Administrative Reforms Order - September, 1973
Laid Foundation Stone of Pakistan Steel Mill - 30th December, 1973
Nationalisation of Banks - 1st January, 1974
Establishment of Allama Iqbal Open University - 21st May, 1974
Islamic Summit at Lahore - 22 February, 1975
Inaugurated Pakistan's First Seerat Conference - 3rd March, 1976
Kissinger warned Zulfikar Ali Bhutto that if Pakistan continued with its nuclear programme "the Prime Minister
would have to pay a heavy price." - August, 1976
Bhutto proposed a Third World Summit - September, 1976
BETRAYAL AND ASSASSINATION
General Elections were held on March 7, 1977. PPP emerged as the victorious Party. At the behest of General Ziaul Haq,
PNA accused government of so-called rigging in the elections. Negotiations with PNA resumed. An Agreement was reached on
June 8, 1977 for holding Fresh Elections on October 8, 1977.
On July 5, 1977 COAS General Ziaul Haq imposed Martial Law unilaterally. The National Assembly, the Senate and Provincial
Assemblies were dissolved and Constitution held in abeyance.
Zia's Military Junta established a dummy government of PNA with CMLA as President. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto arrested on July,
5, 1977 and released on July 28, 1977.
Re-arrested on September 3, 1977 from Clifton, Karachi, on the charges of a fabricated murder case; again released on
September 13, 1977 against Lahore High Court bail. Re-arrested at Larkana on September 17, 1977.
On September, 1977 the Chief Justice of Pakistan, Mr. Justice Yakub Ali Khan was suspended from service because he had
admitted Mrs. Nusrat Bhuto's Petition challenging imposition of martial law.
On October 9, 1977, Maulvi Mushtaq, Chief Justice, Lahore High Court, cancelled the bail already granted to Zulfikar Ali
Bhutto by LHC.
Mercilessly and despicably murdered on April 4, 1979.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as 'Author'
List of Publication
Peace-Keeping by the United Nations. Pakistan Publishing House, Karachi. - 1967
Political Situation in Pakistan, Veshasher Prakashan, New Dehli. - 1968
The Myth of Independence, Oxford University Press, Karachi and Lahore. - 1969
The Great Tragedy, Pakistan People's Party, Karachi. - 1971
Politics of the People (speeches, statements and articles), edited by Hamid Jalal and Khalid Hasan: Pakistan Publications,
Rawalpindi. - 1948-1971
Speeches and Statements, Government of Pakistan, Karachi. - 1971-75
Bilateralism: New Directions. Government of Pakistan, Islamabad - 1976
The Third World: New Directions. Quartet Books, London. - 1977
My Pakistan. Biswin Sadi Publications, New Dehli. - 1979
If I am Assassinated, Vikas, New Dehli. - 1979
My Execution. Musawaat Weekly International, London - 1980
New Directions. Narmara Publishers, London. - 1980
The Legacy of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
As a member of Pakistan's delegation to the United Nation in 1957, at the age of 29 years, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto addressed
the Sixth Conference of the United Nations on "The Definition of Aggression", a speech which is still regarded as
one of the best on the subject. As a participant at the International Conference in Geneva, Switzerland in March, 1958 Zulfikar
Ali Bhutto spoke for mankind with the bold declaration: "The High Seas are free to all." He was the youngest Federal
Cabinet member in the history of Pakistan, at the age of 30. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto held the key portfolios of Minister of
Commerce, Minister of Information, Minister of National Reconstruction, Minister of Fuel, Power and Natural Resources before
becoming the Foreign Minister. As Minister of Fuel, Power and Natural Resources, he signed a path breaking agreement for
exploration of oil and gas with Russia in 1960. He set up a Gas and Mineral Development Corporation in 1961 and Pakistan's
first refinery in 1962 at Karachi.
Bhutto emerged on the world stage as Leader of the Pakistan Delegation to the UN in 1959. To muster the support for Kashmir
issue he successfully toured China, Britain, Egypt and Ireland. He also held a series of talks with the Indian Foreign Minister
Swaran Singh. He was appointed Foreign Minister in 1963 and remained at that post until his resignation in June 1966. Bhutto
made indelible imprints on world community by his inimitable oratorical skills in United Nation's General Assembly and the
Security Council. He had the vision to build a strategic relationship with China at a time when it was isolated. Zulfikar
Ali Bhutto believed in an independent Foreign Policy which had hitherto been the hand maiden of the Western Powers. During
his tenure as Foreign Minister, Pakistan and Iran cemented a special relationship. His opposition to the Tashkent accord
between India and Pakistan led to his resignation from the government. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto believed in a Foreign Policy of
bilateralism in which no state would be entitled to interfere in Pakistan's relations with other states.
During his student days, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto had acquired an anti-Imperialist view of the world. He was a firm believer
in economic self reliance and political independence themes he expounded in his famous book "Myth of Independence".
Bhutto's finest hour came in the reconstruction of Pakistan after the traumatic dismemberment of Pakistan upon the fall of
Dhaka on 16th December, 1971. He successfully put the derailed nation back on the track by rebuilding national institutions.
His lasting achievement was the unanimous adoption of the Constitution in 1973. He established the Pakistan Steel Mills,
Heavy Mechanical Complex Taxila, Port Qasim Authority, Quaid-e-Azam University, Allama Iqbal Open University, Karachi Nuclear
Power Plant; thus, fortifying the prosperity, integrity and security of Pakistan. Using his experience as Foreign Minister,
Bhutto cemented Pakistan's relation with Afro-Asian and Islamic countries and by 1976 had emerged as the Leader of the Third
World. As an author, he brilliantly advocated the cause of hewers of wood and drawers of water of the Third World.
Bhutto was the founder of Pakistan's Nuclear Program. Under his guidance and leadership as Minister for Fuel, Power and
Natural Resources, President and Prime Minister, Pakistan developed into the unique Muslim State with a nuclear capability
for which he paid with his life. In his book "If I am Assassinated" written from the Death Cell, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
revealed how Kissinger had said "We will make an example of you".
The Pakistan People's Party won the elections held in 1977 with a large majority; but the conspirators soon joined hands
with Ziaul Haq at the behest of foreign powers who feared Bhutto's capacity of uniting the Third World countries and sought
to punish him for developing Pakistan's nuclear capacity, and imposed Martial Law upon the country on 5th July, 1977. Soon
afterwards, Bhutto was arrested and on 18th March, 1978, was sentenced to death in a politically motivated murder trial. The
majority of original Court was for acquittal but was whittled down to a 4-3 verdict by the retirement of two judges. Despite
appeals of clemency from several world leaders, Bhutto was executed on 4th April, 1979. The great leader of downtrodden masses
and a visionary of unparalleled charisma will forever be remembered by his countrymen as Quaid-e-Awam (Leader of the Masses).
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto has earned a place in the pantheon of leaders from the Third World who earned everlasting fame in
the struggle against colonialism and imperialism. He had the privilege of interacting with many of those leaders who played
a great role in the epic struggle for national independence in the 20th Century including Mao Tse Tung, Ahmed Soekarno, Chou-en
Lai, Jawaharlal Nehru Gamal Abdel Nasser and Salvador Allende. During the period between the end of the Second World War
and the end of the Cold War, the world was divided into two blocks: The Capitalist West and the Socialist East. All these
leaders aspired to aspects of a socialist pattern of economy. Bhutto shared their faith in a leading role for the public sector
as an instrument of self-reliance.
President of Allende of Chile and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan pursued socialist democratic policies in countries
long dominated by the military, and thus, were overthrown in the same year - 1977 by the collaborators of the Neo-Imperialists,
killed at the behest of the Military Juntas of Pinochet and Zia and followed by long spells of repressive Military regimes
which did not retreat until the Cold War drew to an end.
The key factor in the over throw of Bhutto was Pakistan's nuclear capability. The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant was inaugurated
by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as President of Pakistan at the end of 1972 but long before, as Minister for Fuel, Power and National
Resources, he has played a key role in setting up of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The Kahuta facility was also established
Bhutto's foundation of the PPP was a setback for the reactionary forces in a country long dominated by the Right.
The slogan of "Food, Shelter and Clothing" shifted the focus of Pakistan politics from theological to economic
issues. This focus has never shifted back. Bhutto nationalised the commanding heights of the economy; another blow to the
capitalist West. During his tenure there was a massive transfer of resources towards the dominant rural economy by setting
higher prices for agricultural products.
The Constitution of 1973, passed unanimously, is yet another lasting legacy of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Time has shown
that it cannot be replaced. Constitution making in Pakistan was bedevilled, since the birth of the State, by three unresolved
issues: (i) The role of Islam in the State, (ii) the degree of Provincial Autonomy, and (iii) the Nature of Executive. Bhutto
managed to bring all the political parties, including those like the Jamat-e-Islami, JUI and JUP, who demanded an Islamic
State, and the Awami National Party, which was the major party in the Frontier and Balochistan, calling for maximum provincial
autonomy, to agree to a consensus on the Constitution, thus, permanently resolving all the three issues. A new institution,
the Senate of Pakistan was, created in which the provinces had equal representation, in order to redress the balance of
power in Pakistan, probably the only country in the world where one federating unit has an absolute majority. The creation
of Council of Common Interest also gave to the provinces a greater weight in the federal dispensation. Islam was declared
to be the State religion and the Council of Islamic Ideology given charge of Islamisation of laws. At the same time the
Constitution reiterated the basic principle of socialism: "from each according to his ability to each according to
The never ending tussle between the Head of State and Parliament was resolved by empowering the Prime Minister. Ironically,
it is opponents of Bhutto who have, through 13th Amendment of 1997, restored the role of the Prime Minister as was envisaged
in the original Constitution of 1973 after General Zia had shifted power to dissolve the Assembly and make key civilian
and military appointments to the President No better tribute can be paid to the foresight and sagacity of the martyred leader.
Finally, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto had the courage of his conviction to decide to lay down his life rather than compromise or
seek appeasement. The last chapter of his life is a glorious example of martyrdom for the cause of resurrection of democracy.
At the time of his over throw, Bhutto was emerging as a spokesman of the World of Islam and the leader of the Third World.
The age of Bhutto was an Age of Revolution. Although his life and career were cruelly terminated, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto will
forever shine in history as one of the Great leaders who took part in the liberation of the Third World from the yoke of Imperialism
and Neo Colonialism during the Twentieth Century.